FASS Staff Profile


(65) 6516 6120
(65) 6773 1843

Brief Introduction

I am an associate professor at the Department of Psychology, the National University of Singapore.  I joined the department in 2008, shortly after receiving my Ph.D. in personality psychology from the University of Western Ontario.  At Western, I worked with the late Professor Sampo Paunonen, a great mentor who had helped me navigate the fascinating world of personality research.  Broadly speaking, my research interests include personality and its assessment (e.g., the Big Five), psychopathology (e.g., mood, anxiety, and disinhibitory disorders), and the interface between these two areas.  I currently serve as associate editor for the British Journal of Psychology and Personality Science, and as editorial board member for Personality and Individual Differences.


NB.  I will not be accepting research graduate students for Academic Year 2023-24.

Teaching Areas

PL3241 - Personality and Individual Differences
PL3287A - Lab in Personality and Psychopathology
PL4201 - Psychometrics and Psychological Testing
PL6770 - Graduate Research Seminar
PLC5008 - Clinical Graduate Research Methods

Current Research

I am particularly interested in delineating personality vulnerabilities to psychopathology using dispositional-trait and social-cognitive perspectives of personality.  One domain of research I am currently working on is to explore linkages between broad dispositional traits (e.g., Neuroticism and Conscientiousness) and specific social-cognitive vulnerabilities to common psychopathology (e.g., depressogenic inferential style, ruminative style, anxiety sensitivity, poor self control/regulation).  It is hoped that through this research, current understanding regarding the etiology and development of psychopathology may be enhanced.



  • Lee, S. S. M., Keng, S.-L., & Hong, R. Y. (in press). Validating the biosocial model of borderline personality disorder: Findings from a longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology.
  • Hong, R. Y., Zainal, N. H., & Ong, X. L. (2023). Longitudinal associations between academic competence-building and depression symptoms in early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 35, 2061-2072.
  • Ding, X. P., Tay, C., Goh, S. J., & Hong, R. Y. (2023). Parental warmth moderates the relation between children’s lying and theory-of-mind. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 47, 306-316.
  • Chan, K. M. Y., Hong, R. Y., Ong, X. L., & Cheung, H. S. (2023). Emotion dysregulation and anxiety and depression symptoms in early adolescence: Bidirectional longitudinal associations and the antecedent role of attachment anxiety and avoidance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 41, 291-305.
  • Gardiner, G., Lee, D., Baranski, E., Members of the International Situations Project, Funder, D. (2023). The economic well-being of nations is associated with positive daily situational experiences. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, 4, 100088.
  • Lee, S. S. M., Keng, S.-L., & Hong, R. Y. (2023). Examining the intergenerational transmission of parental invalidation: Extension of the biosocial model. Development and Psychopathology, 35, 24-34.
  • Lee, S. S. M., Keng, S.-L., Yeo, G. C., & Hong, R. Y. (2022). Parental invalidation and its associations with borderline personality disorder symptoms: A multivariate meta-analysis. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 13, 572-582.
  • Drabu, S., Sündermann, O., & Hong, R. Y. (2022). A one-week online self-compassion training reduces self-criticism and pain endurance in adults with non-suicidal self-injury ideation: A randomized-waitlist controlled study. Mindfulness, 13, 1232-1245.
  • Chen, L., Qu, L., & Hong, R. Y. (2022). Pathways linking the Big Five to psychological distress: Exploring the mediating roles of stress mindset and coping flexibility. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11, 2272.
  • Hong, R. Y., Sheng, D., & Yee, W. Q. (2022). Pathological personality, situations, and their joint influences on daily emotional symptoms. Journal of Personality, 90, 426-440.
  • Valentine, J. C., Cheung, M. W.-L., Smith, E. J., Alexander, O., Hatton, J. M., Hong, R. Y., Huckaby, L. T., Patton, S. C., Pössel, P., & Seely, H. D. (2022). A primer on meta-analytic structural equation modeling: The case of depression. Prevention Science, 23, 346-365.
  • Baranski, E., Gardiner, G., Lee, D., Funder, D., & Members of the International Situations Project (2021).  Who in the world is trying to change their personality traits? Volitional personality change among college students in six continents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 121, 1140-1156.
  • Poh, R. Y. N., Zhuang S., Ong, X. L., & Hong, R. Y. (2021). Evaluating structural models of cognitive vulnerabilities: Transdiagnostic and specific pathways to internalizing symptoms. Assessment,28, 1635-1655.
  • Baranski, E., Sweeny, K., Gardiner, G., Members of the International Situations Project, & Funder, D. C. (2021). International optimism: Correlates and consequences of dispositional optimism across 61 countries. Journal of Personality, 89, 288-304.
  • Zainal, N. H., Newman, M. G., & Hong, R. Y. (2021). Cross-cultural and gender invariance of transdiagnostic processes in the United States and Singapore. Assessment, 28, 485-502.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Tan, Y. L. (2021). DSM-5 personality traits and cognitive risks for depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 169, 110041.
  • Gardiner, G., Lee, D. I., Baranski, E., Members of the International Situations Project, & Funder, D. C. (2020). Happiness around the world: A combined etic-emic approach across 63 countries. PLoS ONE, 15, e0242718.
  • Lee, D. I., Gardiner, G., Baranski, E., Members of the International Situations Project, & Funder, D. C. (2020). Situational experience around the world: A replication and extension. Journal of Personality, 88, 1091-1110.
  • Brandt, M. J., Kuppens, T., Spears, R., Andrighetto, L., Autin, F., Babincak ... Hong, R. Y., … & Zimmerman, J. L. (2020). Subjective status and perceived legitimacy across countries. European Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 921-942.
  • Yeo, G. C., Hong, R. Y., & Riskind, J. H. (2020). Looming cognitive style and its associations with anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 44, 445-467.
  • Hong, R. Y., Chan, W. Y., & Lim, J. (2020). Pathological personality traits and the experience of daily situations. Clinical Psychological Science, 8, 333-342.
  • Ong, X. L., Hong, R. Y., Tsai, F. F., & Tan, S. H. (2019). Becoming more or less mature? The decline of self-control in middle childhood. Journal of Personality, 87, 799-812.
  • Keng, S.-L., Lee, Y., Drabu, S., Hong, R. Y., Chee, C. Y. I., Ho, C. S. H., & Ho, R. C. M. (2019). Construct validity of the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder in two Singaporean samples.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 33, 450-469..
  • Lim, D. S. H., Gwee, A. J., & Hong, R. Y. (2019). Associations between the DSM-5 Section III trait model and impairments in functioning in Singaporean college students. Journal of Personality Disorders33, 413-431.
  • Gardiner, G., Guillaume, E., Stauner, N., Bae, J., Han, G., Moon, J., Bronin, I., Ivanova, C., Cheng, J. T., de Kock, F. S., Graf, S., Hřebíčková, M., Halama, P., Hong, R. Y., Izdebski, P., Kulich, C., Lorenzi-Cioldi, F., Penke, L., Szarota, P., Tracy, J., &  Funder, D. C. (2019). Assessing personality across 13 countries using the California Adult Q-set. International Journal of Personality Psychology, 5, 1-17.
  • Carleton, R. N., Desgagné, G., Krakauer, R., & Hong, R. Y. (2019). Increasing intolerance of uncertainty over time: The potential influence of increasing connectivity? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 48, 121-136.
  • Lean, L. L., Hong, R. Y., & Ti, L. K. (2018). How the personalities of medical students at National University of Singapore differ from the local non-medical undergraduate population: a cross-sectional study. Singapore Medical Journal, 59, 656-659.
  • Tan, C. S., Ng, B. H. H., Chin, S. R., Chua, C., & Hong, R. Y. (2018). Experiential permeability: Associations with schizotypy and related symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 129, 149-158.
  • Cheung, M. W.-L., & Hong, R. Y. (2017). Applications of meta-analytic structural equation modeling in health psychology: Examples, issues, and recommendations.  Health Psychology Review, 11, 265-279.
  • Lean, L. L., Hong, R. Y., & Ti, L. K. (2017). End-task verses in-task feedback to increase procedural learning retention during spinal anesthesia training of novices. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 22, 713-721.
  • Hong, R. Y., Lee, S. S. M., Chng, R. Y., Zhou, Y., Tsai, F. F., & Tan, S. H. (2017). Developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism in middle childhood. Journal of Personality, 85, 409-422.
  • Baranski, E., Gardner, G., Guillaume, E., Aveyard, M., Bastian, B., Bronin, I., Ivanova, C., Cheng, J. T., de Kock, F. S., Denissen, J. J. A., Gallardo-Pujol, D., Halama, P., Han, G. Q., Bae, J., Moon, J., Hong, R. Y., Hřebíčková, M., Graf, S., Izdebski, P., Lundmann, L., Penke, L., Perugini, M., Costantini, G., Rauthmann, J., Ziegler, M., Realo, A., Elme, L., Sato, T., Kawamoto, S., Szarota, P., Tracy, J. L., van Aken, M. A. G., Yang, Y., & Funder, D. C. (2017). Comparisons of daily behavior across 21 countries. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8, 252-266.
  • Hong, R. Y., Riskind, J. H., Cheung, M. W.-L., Calvete, E., González-Díez, Z., Atalay, A. A., Curzik, D., Jokic-Begic, N., del Palacio-Gonzalez, A., Mihić, L., Samac, N., Sica, C., Sugiura, Y., Khatri, S., & Kleiman, E. (2017). The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire: Measurement invariance and relations to anxiety and depression across 10 countries. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 49, 1-11.
  • Hong, R. Y., Lee, S. S. M., Tsai, F. F., & Tan, S. H. (2017). Developmental trajectories and origins of a core cognitive vulnerability to internalizing symptoms in middle childhood. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 299-315.
  • Guillaume, E., Baranski, E., Todd, E., Bastian, B., Bronin, I., Ivanova, C., Cheng, J. T., de Kock, F. S., Denissen, J. J. A., Gallardo-Pujol, D., Halama, P., Han, G. Q., Bae, J., Moon, J., Hong, R. Y., Hřebíčková, M., Graf, S., Izdebski, P., Lundmann, L., Penke, L., Perugini, M., Costantini, G., Rauthmann, J., Ziegler, M., Realo, A., Elme, L., Sato, T., Kawamoto, S., Szarota, P., Tracy, J. L., van Aken, M. A. G., Yang, Y., & Funder, D. C. (2016). The world at 7: Comparing the experience of situations across 20 countries. Journal of Personality, 84, 493-509.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Cheung, M. W.-L. (2015). The structure of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression and anxiety: Evidence for a common core etiologic process based on a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 892-912.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Lee, S. S. M. (2015). Further clarifying prospective and inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty: Factorial and construct validity of test scores from the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Psychological Assessment, 27, 605-620.
  • Hong, R. Y., Tan, C. S., Lee, S. S. M., Tan, S. H., Tsai, F. F., Poh, X. T., Zhou, Y., Sum, E. L., & Zhou, Y. (2015). Interactive effects of parental personality and child temperament with parenting and family cohesion. Parenting: Science and Practice, 15, 92-118.
  • Liew, S. M., Thevaraja, N., Hong, R. Y., & Magiati, I. (2015).  The relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety, worry, obsessive-compulsive, and depression symptoms: Specific and non-specific mediators in a student sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 858-872.
  • Lies, J., Mellor, D., & Hong, R. Y., (2014). Gratitude and personal functioning among earthquake survivors in Indonesia. Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 295-305.
  • Hong, R. Y. (2013). From dispositional traits to psychopathological symptoms: Social-cognitive vulnerabilities as intervening mechanisms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35, 407-420.
  • Paunonen, S. V., & Hong, R. Y. (2013). The many faces of assumed similarity in perceptions of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 800-815.
  • Hong, R. Y., Triyono, W., & Ong, P. S. (2013). When being discrepant from one’s ideal or ought selves hurts: The moderating role of neuroticism. European Journal of Personality, 27, 256-270.
  • Schirmer, A., Chen, C., Ching, A., Tan, L., & Hong, R. Y. (2013). Vocal emotions influence verbal memory: Neural correlates and inter-individual differences. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 80-93.
  • Hong, R. Y., Koh, S., & Paunonen, S. V. (2012). Supernumerary personality traits beyond the Big Five: Predicting materialism and unethical behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 710-715.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Paunonen, S. V. (2011). Personality vulnerabilities to psychopathology: Relations between trait structure and affective-cognitive processes. Journal of Personality, 79, 527-562.
  • Chen, C. Y., & Hong, R. Y. (2010). Intolerance of uncertainty moderates the relation between negative life events and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 49-53.
  • Hong, R. Y. (2010). Neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity thoughts, and anxiety symptomatology: Insights from an experience-sampling study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 254-262.
  • Haikal, M., & Hong, R. Y. (2010). The effects of social evaluation and looming threat on self-attentional biases and social anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 345-352.
  • Paunonen, S. V., & Hong, R. Y. (2010). Self-efficacy and the prediction of domain-specific abilities. Journal of Personality, 78, 339-360.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Paunonen, S. V. (2009). Personality traits and health-risk behaviors in university students. European Journal of Personality, 23, 675-696.
  • Reid, G. J., Hong, R. Y., & Wade, T. J. (2009). The relation between common sleep problems and emotional and behavioral problems among 2- and 3-year-olds in the context of known risk factors for psychopathology. Journal of Sleep Research, 18, 49-59.
  • Hong, R. Y., Paunonen, S. V., & Slade, H. P. (2008). Big Five personality factors and the prediction of behavior: A multitrait-multimethod approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 160-166.
  • Hong, R. Y. (2007). Worry and rumination: Differential associations with anxious and depressive symptoms and coping behavior. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 277-290.
  • Hong, R. Y., Gwee, K., & Karia, M. (2006). The role of event-specific inferences in the etiological chain of hopelessness depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1119-1129.
  • Hong, R. Y., Tan, M. S., & Chang, W. C. (2004). Locomotion and assessment: Self-regulation and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 325-332.


  • Gardiner, G., Sauerberger, K., Members of the International Situations Project, & Funder, D.C. (2019). Towards meaningful comparisons of personality in large-scale cross-cultural studies. In A. Realo (Ed.), In praise of an inquisitive mind: A Festschrift in honor of Jüri Allik on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Tartu: University of Estonia Press. 
  • Hong, R. Y., & Ong, X. L. (2017). The Supernumerary Personality Inventory.  In V. Zeigler-Hill, T.K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. New York, NY: Springer.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Paunonen, S. V. (2015). Five factor model of personality, facets of.  In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences (2nd ed., Vol 9, pp.236-241). Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Paunonen, S. V., & Hong, R. Y. (2015). On properties of personality traits. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), The APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology: Vol. 4. Personality Processes and Individual Differences (pp. 233-259). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Hong, R. Y., & Paunonen, S. V. (2008). The Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire and the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing: Vol. 2. Personality measurement and assessment (pp. 485-507). London: Sage Publications.

Other Information


Associate Editor
British Journal of Psychology
Personality Science

Member of Editorial Board
Personality and Individual Differences

Ad Hoc Reviewer
Asian Journal of Social Psychology
Behaviour Research and Therapy
Clinical Psychology Review
Cognitive Therapy and Research
Depression and Anxiety
European Journal of Personality
Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Journal of Affective Disorders
Journal of Personality
Journal of Personality Disorders
Personality and Individual Differences

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